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Cell and Tissue Banking

A cell bank is a facility that stores cells of specific genome for the purpose of future use in a product or medicinal needs. They often contain expansive amounts of base cell material that can be utilized for various projects.

A tissue bank is an establishment that collects and recovers human cadaver tissue for the purposes of medical research and education. A tissue bank may also refer to a location where biomedical tissue is stored under cryogenic conditions, and is generally used in a more clinical sense.

 

Cryopreservation Methods

A process where cells, whole tissues, or any other substances susceptible to damage caused by chemical reactivity or time are preserved by cooling to sub-zero temperatures. At low enough temperatures, any enzymatic or chemical activity which might cause damage to the material in question is effectively stopped. Cryopreservation methods seek to reach low temperatures without causing additional damage caused by the formation of ice during freezing. Traditional cryopreservation has relied on coating the material to be frozen with a class of molecules termed cryoprotectants. New methods are constantly being investigated due to the inherent toxicity of many cryoprotectants.

 

Blood Banking and Donation


Blood banking is the process that takes place in the lab to make sure that donated blood, or blood products, are safe before they are used in blood transfusions and other medical procedures. Blood banking includes typing the blood for transfusion and testing for infectious diseases.

 

Biobanking for Rare Disease

Biobanking is an essential tool to provide access to high quality human biomaterial for fundamental and translational research. Research for rare disorders benefits from the provision of human biomaterials through biobanks, and each human sample from a person with a rare disorder has a high value as it may hold the key to answer an important research question. Transnational cooperation in biobanking is an important catalyst to share limited resources and achieve optimal outcomes as in other areas of rare disorder research.

 

 

Brain Biobank

A brain bank is a central repository of brain tissue that has been donated for future research. These centralized resources make it possible for researchers with a particular interest to request tissue from a brain bank for their investigations.

 

Bio-repository and Biospecimen

A Biorepository is a biological materials repository that collects, processes, stores, and distributes bio specimens to support future scientific investigation. Biorepositories can contain or manage specimens from animals, including humans, and many other living organisms. Vertebrates, invertebrates, arthropods, and other life-forms are just a few of the many classes of living organisms which can be studied by preserving and storing samples taken. The Biorepository assures the quality, and manages the accessibility and distribution/disposition of the bio specimens in its collection.

 

Biobanking in Microbiology

Millions of biological samples, including cells of human, animal or bacterial origin, viruses, serum/plasma or DNA/RNA, are stored every year throughout the world for diagnostics and research. The purpose of this review is to summarize the resources necessary to set up a biobanking facility, the challenges and pitfalls of sample collection, and the most important techniques for separation and storage of samples. Biological samples can be stored for up to 30 years, but specific protocols are required to reduce the damage induced by preservation techniques.

 

Fertility Preservation

Fertility preservation is the effort to help cancer patients retain their fertility, or ability to procreate. Research into how cancer affects reproductive health and preservation options are growing, sparked in part by the increase in the survival rate of cancer patients. The main methods of fertility preservation are ovarian protection by GnRH agonists, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, eggs or sperm, or of embryos after in vitro fertilization. The patient may also choose to use egg or sperm from a donor by third party reproduction rather than having biological children.

 

Human cancer biobank

The Cancer Human Biobank (caHUB) is a BBRB induced system that finishes specific biospecimen and data acquisitions to reinforce biospecimen science works out. The caHUB framework involves the going with sections Bio examples Source Sites (BSSs) are relationship, for instance, insightful remedial concentrates, quick after death examination centers, and organ securing affiliations, that get tireless consent, get cases, and watercraft them to one of different undertaking areas. The Comprehensive Bio examples Resource (CBR) is a consolidated site that hoards amassing and transportation packs, gets most bio samples from the BSSs for taking care of and limit, and water crafts bio examples from the BSSs to the get ready and examination workplaces. The CBR moreover makes H&E fragments from FFPE squares and conveys propelled photos of these regions. The Comprehensive Data Resource (CDR) is a concentrated data storeroom that secures patient and illustration data from BSSs and other undertaking areas that handle and examinations tests. The Pathology Resource Center (PRC) is an arrangement of board avowed pathologists who review H&E sections from caHUB assembled samples as a quality control measure moreover give particular bearing to caHUB Bio example's gatherings.

 

Next Generation Biobanking

Biorepositories provide a resource for researchers to increase understanding of complex diseases. Studies such as the Lung Genomics Research Consortium (LGRC), a two-year project launched in October 2009, are going a step further than standard biobanking practices and characterizing the samples with their molecular makeup. The molecular data can then be mined along with the clinical data. Led by National Jewish Health and funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the LGRC project consists of five institutions, including Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Collaborators in the project work with samples banked at the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC), which houses tissue samples and blood from lung disease sufferers, primarily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), along with a rich set of clinical data from patients

 

Vitrification

Vitrification (from Latin vitreum, "glass" via French vitrifier) is the transformation of a substance into a glass, that is to say a non-crystalline amorphous solid. In the production of ceramics, vitrification is responsible for its impermeability to water.

 

Stem Cell Niches

Stem-cell niche refers to a microenvironment, within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate. The word 'niche' can be in reference to the in vivo or in vitro stem-cell microenvironment.

 

Stem Cell Biomarkers

A biomarker, or biological marker, is defined as a "cellular, biochemical or molecular alteration in cells, tissues or fluids that can be measured and evaluated to indicate normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention." Biomarkers characterize disease progression starting from the earliest natural history of the disease. Biomarkers assess disease susceptibility and severity, which allows one to predict outcomes, determine interventions and evaluate therapeutic responses. From a forensics and epidemiologic perspective, biomarkers offer unique insight about the relationships between environmental risk factors.

 

Biobanks Ethics

Ethical issues are commonly present in many aspects of Biobanking. The fact that Biobanks deal with human samples, invading an individual autonomy or limiting self-control, provokes a number of ethical issues. Who is actually competent to give informed consent and donate a sample? When individuals donate part of their body to a biobank, how is that human sample processed? Who is the owner of the sample? Who should decide how it should be used? Who has the right to know individual results of research? These and many more ethical dilemmas exist in the ethical framework of biobanks. With the recent rapid developments in biobanking, all of these issues are magnified with plenty of further new questions continuously arising. Ethical framework has been the most controversial issue in the domain of biobanking. Thus, it is not surprising that there is a substantial literature focusing on ethical dilemmas in biobanking, such as informed consent, privacy, protection, and returning of results to participants. For many years, researchers at CRB have provided constructive advice on how to deal with ethical aspects of research using human tissue material and personal data.

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